Microbiological tests focus on the detection and the study of microorganisms, based on their specific properties and their clinical manifestations. Main examinations are cultures of biological samples (urine, feces, vaginal and cervical fluid, semen, puss, saliva, skin samples, etc.), performance of sensitivity test of the detected microorganisms to a wide range of antibiotics (antibiogram), and parasite investigation in various nutrient media or under microscopy.
The culture of clinical samples is a time-consuming procedure and is usually completed in 24 to 48 hours.
In this category of blood tests, measurements of a blood sample’s red and white blood cells using a specialized hematology analyzer are included, anemia testing through measuring of hemoglobin and hematocrit, and examination of patient’s blood cells morphology with the aid of a high-resolution optical microscope using specific stains to exclude hematological diseases.
Hemostasis is a process that normally triggers blood coagulation and helps initial wound healing. This involves blood changing from a liquid to a gel. The measurement of blood coagulation factors and prothrombin time helps physicians to adjust the dose of patient’s blood thinning medication. These tests are very sensitive and require specialized technical expertise because any incorrect result may mislead the clinician to prescribe wrong medication dosage which may lead dangerously to patient bleeding or contrary to blood vessel clotting (i.e. thrombosis syndrome).
Biochemical testing contributes substantially to the direct investigation of body functionality through the control of body’s organs functioning: kidney, liver functionality, lipemic profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, total lipids, apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, Lp(a) etc.).
Hormonal testing concerns hormones measurements and is used to investigate endocrine glands and diseases associated with them. Particularly, it is an irreplaceable tool in the investigation of thyroid functionality, diabetes, osteoporosis, growth disorders, diseases of adrenal glands and reproductive dysfunctionality, etc., bringing an accountable contribution to the patient’s monitoring and treatment.
Immunological tests investigate the functioning of the immune system under physiological and pathological conditions, procedure that can help identifying pathological states and dysfunctionalities of the immune system. The immune system has remarkable adaptability and contributes to building defense mechanisms from pathogens and diseases.